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As the number of network nodes increases, the amount of overhead also increases. Each switch might be connected to dozens of nodes, with each node generating the several broadcast frames. If enough traffic is created, even a switched network can have poor performance. Deploying VLANs can help solve this problem by breaking up the broadcast domain and separating the traffic.

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In addition to pruning for proper VLAN boundaries and the default configurations of the ports, it may be prudent to add a couple of additional configuration changes. Unused ports can be collected into a “deadend VLAN” that is not routed and is pruned from the network. Anyone connecting to a port in this VLAN will be isolated. In addition, many vendors offer security enhancements to ports such as authorized MAC addresses and restricting the number of MAC addresses allowed. When invalid MAC addresses are seen on the port, the port will automatically be shutdown or disabled.


There are three ways that this information can be structured but those used in token ring and FDDI networks will not be covered here. The TCI includes the priority, Canonical Format Indicator and VLAN ID. The 2-byte hexadecimal TCI from Figure 4-18 is 20 65.

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What is not obvious from the topology on the left is that by default, all of these nodes are actually part of the same VLAN. So, another way to think about this topology is based on the VLAN as shown on the right. For example, with Cisco devices the default VLAN is VLAN 1. This is also called the management VLAN. Its initial configuration includes all ports as members and this reflected in the source address table or SAT. This table is often described as being used to forward frames to the proper Layer 2 port based on the destination MAC. With the introduction of VLANs, the source address table reflects the port to MAC address mapping on a per-VLAN basis resulting in more advanced forwarding decisions. Figure 4-5 displays the output from both the show mac-address-table and show vlan commands. All of the ports (Fa0/1 – Fa0/24) are in VLAN 1.


When a port is used to interconnect switches and convey VLAN information, the operation of the port is changed to a trunk. For example, on a Cisco switch the mode command would be used to make this change. Other vendors indicate that the port is now “tagged,” indicating that a VLAN id will now be inserted into the frames. The 802/1Q standard also includes a provision for “hybrid” ports that understand both tagged and untagged frames. To be clear, nodes and routers are often unaware of the VLANs and use standard Ethernet or “untagged” frames. Trunk lines providing VLAN or priority values will be using “tagged” frames. An example of a tagged frame can be seen in Figure 4-17.

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When using IEEE 802/1Q, a 4-byte header is inserted in between the Ethernet and IP headers. Per the 802/1D standard, it is inserted 12 bytes into the frame immediately following the source MAC address. Therefore, frame is actually changed. So, the Ethernet type, which indicates the kind of encapsulated data, must also change. As an example, IP packets have an Ethertype value of 0800 but when running over a trunk it is changed to 8100 as shown in Figure 4-18.

The left side of Figure 4-1 depicts a small network in which PC 2 and PC 4 attempt transmissions at the same time. The frames propagate away from the computers, eventually colliding with each other somewhere in between the two nodes as shown on the right. The increased voltage and power then propagate away from the scene of the collision. Note that the collision does not continue past the switches on either end. These are the boundaries of the collision domain. This is one of the primary reasons for switches replacing hubs. Hubs (and access points) simply do not scale well as network traffic increases.


Chapter 4. VLANs and Trunking

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One of these items is the default configuration mode of the ports on the switch. Most switch ports will wind up connected to computers and so will act as access ports. What is not obvious is that on many devices, the default configuration is not access, but dynamic. This means that the port is willing to negotiate the mode of operation. If two switches are connected together, and one switch is configured with a trunk port, it is often the case that it will generate dynamic trunking protocol messages. Once received, this message may cause the second switch to convert its port to a trunk automatically.


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If all switch ports are configured to transmit and receive untagged frames (frames to/from non-VLAN aware devices), switches will work in plug-and-play ISO/IEC 15802-3 mode. End stations will be able to communicate throughout the Bridged LAN.


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The move from hubs (shared networks) to switched networks was a big improvement. Control over collisions, increased throughput, and the additional features offered by switches all provide ample incentive to upgrade infrastructure. But Layer 2 switched topologies are not without their difficulties. Extensive flat topologies can create congested broadcast domains and can involve compromises with security, redundancy, and load balancing. These issues can be mitigated through the use of virtual local area networks, or VLANs. This chapter provides the structure and operation of VLANs as standardized in IEEE 802/1Q. This discussion will include trunking methods used for interconnecting devices on VLANs.


So, on the trunk ports, a trunking protocol is run that allows the VLAN information to be included in each frame as it travels over the trunk line. For configuration, there are generally two steps: converting the port to trunk mode and determining the encapsulation (trunking protocol) to be used.

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Used in quality of service implementations, also called class of service. This is a three bit field with values ranging from 000 (0) to 111 (7). The default value is 0 though vendors recommend higher values for certain types of traffic. For example, VoIP traffic is typically set to binary 101 (base 10: 5). Figure 4-18 depicts a slightly elevated priority of 2. Figure 4-19 depicts prioritized traffic from another network. In this case, the priority is set to 111 (7).


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There are two trunking protocols used on modern communication networks: Inter-Switch Link (ISL) from Cisco and the aforementioned nonproprietary IEEE 802/1Q. Of the two, IEEE 802/1Q is the industry standard. Even Cisco switches now use IEEE 802/1Q (dot1q) by default.

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In the other VLAN, generate broadcast traffic by “PINGing“ an unused IP address on the same network. This will cause an ARP request to be transmitted.


So far, the VLANs discussed have been deployed on a single switch. The question arises: “What happens if multiple switches are part of the overall network fabric?

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Since VLANs are logical groupings of nodes that are independent of location, it does not matter where the nodes connect. Figure 4-8 demonstrates this concept. The topology in Figure 4-7 has been redrawn with the IP addresses of network nodes changed. To help with clarity, in this example VLAN 1 is also red and VLAN 2 is blue. Ports 1, 4 and 5 are part of red VLAN 1 while ports 2, 3 and 6 are part of the blue VLAN 2.


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The use of switches at Layer 2 eliminates much of the scaling problem because they filter out problems such as collisions. Instead, transmissions are now governed by the behavior of the switches and the broadcast domain. A broadcast domain defines the area over which a broadcast frame will propagate. For example, an ARP request issued by PC 3 results in a broadcast frame that propagates through the switches all the way to the routers as shown in Figure 4-2. A broadcast frame has the broadcast address (FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF) as the destination MAC.

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The most common method of assigning dynamic VLAN membership is via the MAC address. As soon as the node generates a single frame, the switch completes the MAC address query and then assigns the port. The nodes still do not have any knowledge that VLANs are used. VLAN membership can also be based on other criteria or tied to authentication schemes such as 802/1X.


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Examining Figure 4-13, there are a couple of problems. First, the computers are all on the same IP network, despite being connected to different VLANs. Secondly, the router is isolated from all of the nodes because it is in VLAN 1. Lastly, the switches are interconnected via different VLANs. Each of these would create communication difficulties, but taken together, there is little or no communication between network elements.


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Connect a router interface to each of the VLANs and assign the proper IP addressing. At this point, the nodes on different networks should be able to successfully PING each other.


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VLANs are a basic tool for creating network boundaries. While they can create challenges regarding the forwarding of traffic, they can be a powerful tool for handling security and quality of service concerns. This chapter discussed the operation of VLANs and the methods used for propagating VLANs throughout a larger topology. When deploying VLANs and trunks, there are several design considerations to take into account.

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Problems occur when new VLANs are created as shown in Figure 4-13. Since the VLANs create Layer 3 boundaries around the ports connected to the hosts, they are not able to communicate.


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Another common topology can be seen in Figure 4-6 in which two switches are separated by a router. In this case, a group of nodes are connected to each switch. The nodes on a particular switch share a common IP addressing scheme. There are two networks, 192/168/1.0 and 192/168/2.0.

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However, the switch now has the additional requirement of considering the VLAN of the destination node. Referring to Figure 4-7, if PC1 were to issue an ARP request, instead of simply forwarding this frame to every port, the switch determines that the frame originated on VLAN 1. The result is that only PC2 and the leftmost router interface (192/168/1.254) actually see the frame.

It is often the case that network technicians do not wish to rewire the topology every time that a new node is connected. So, a host may simply be connected to any available port and the port is then assigned to a particular VLAN. The critical idea is that the behavior is the same whether or not the ports are right next to each other. Thus, PC1 and PC4 can communicate directly with each other but must use the router to get to PC2 and PC3. Frames issued on red VLAN 1 will not be seen by nodes on blue VLAN 2.


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As this is an older Cisco proprietary protocol, not much time will be spent on its description. Figure 4-20 shows an ISL tagged frame and illustrates a different approach to tagging. IEEE 802/1Q performs what is called “internal tagging” by inserting the VLAN header in between the Ethernet and IP headers. This also forces a recalculation of the frame CRC.

Figure 4-9 depicts an example of how nodes and VLANs might be arranged. PC1 and PC2 are physically located in the same part of the building and so are assigned to the same VLAN. The same is true for PC3 and PC4. It is likely that they serve users from the same department. This type of topology is configured manually by a network administrator who assigns ports on the switch to a particular VLAN. Again, the nodes and router do not have any knowledge about the VLANs.


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However, if the switch is smart enough to recognize that PC4 has now moved to a new port, it may be able to automatically repair the connection. Once PC4 connects to the new port, it will generate traffic. Upon receipt of a frame from PC4, the switch completes a database look up to determine the VLAN membership and then will assign the port to the proper VLAN. Once this has occurred, PC4 will be able to communicate just as it did before the move. The new topology would look like the one shown in Figure 4-11. The node will not even have to change its IP address.


A default topology is shown in Figure 4-12 where two switches have simply been powered up and several nodes connected. The default VLAN for both switches (if we assume Cisco devices) will be VLAN 1. This also means that the connections running between the switches will also be in VLAN 1. The router provides the egress point for all nodes.

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Most VLANs are configured with static membership. In topologies like those described above, nodes remain connected to the same port and so there is no need to change VLAN membership. The desktop computer is usually associated with an office desk or cubicle assigned to an employee so there is little need to worry that the machine will move.

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